Mukhamedkhanova A. K.
Kazakh Economic University after T. Ryskulov
IF THERE IS A HOPE: REGIONAL ECONOMY OF THE RK
The actuality of a chosen theme consists of Kazakhstani`s wish (particularly, the aspiration of people living in the RK) to be an integral part of «gold billion». That means to have a high life level inspire limited resources reason. To achieve this sparkling top, first of all, it is necessary for the republic to be implemented not as raw materials appendage, but as high tech civilization. Such program is in need of new approaches and aspect angled view, as well as detailed analysis of current regional situation, characterized by the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. We shall consider the budgetary regional dependence from the center as an internal power. At the same time, external power will be represented by interactional conjuncture degree of outer market and productive hydro carbonic branch.
Thus, region is the territory within administrative borders of Federal subject characterized by: complexity, integrity, specialization and manageability, e. g. the presence of politico-administrative control units .
Despite the sharp concentration of production in the western oil-regions the level of income is often critically low in the RK. Logically, once the plant is – there should be income! But on the territory of post-Soviet space factory does not require highly skilled labor force, because the production process is not computerized, etc. as opposed to factories in Germany . According to the tables’ data , we can conclude – the standard of living is higher where financial capital is concentrated and to work with which required educated and therefore more highly paid professionals.
The structure of export in the country generally reflects the importance of mining and oil-producing manufacture in the structure of production, what strengthens the dependence of the country on raw materials. We`ll mark, that the regional industry – the production of those who export crude oil and gas, develops much faster than manufacturing industry. Cardinal change of the situation is expected in frames of industrial-innovative realization of 2003–2015 program, determining the growth of productive potential of separate regions within the country and their balanced backing.
The analysis of absolute values of transfers directed to the regions shoe strong growth in 2008 comparatively with the indexes of 2004 (479,7% and 137,8%) and 2007. Such explosion explained by realization of anti-crisis measures – projects and programs – from governmental side. Several huge investment programs also took place all over the republic. Thus the absolute leader of absorbing the funds is South-Kazakhstani`s region (excluding Astana city). While, the less donated regions were represented by Mangistau region (2,2%) and Pavlodar (3,3%). If we analyze the average amount of donation gained for 2004–2009 we also mention the following: Mangistau region (1,7%), Atyrau region (3,2%), Pavlodar region (3,4%). However, the subvention data «per capita» showed some other information .
Making the analysis of the «export -import», comparing the rates of profit, sales and purchases, the total turnover of the hydrocarbon industry – come to the conclusion that the volume of products imported into the country 's fuel and energy sector at a cost amounting to $ 862.0 4606 as well as their export generates income in the amount of $ 58,122,764.6 . It becomes obvious that sale of raw materials today – very profitable. Drawing attention to the commodity structure of exports, we emphasize : January- November 2011 the share of mineral products amounted to 78.7% .
If we stop export the minerals, we`ll have 20, 3% from $ 834.2 79 820 (the total income of the country's exports), which amount is 15,964,166, $ 8, while, while buying 4606 $ 862.0. Thus, the share of the hydrocarbon sector in the regional and national economy is great. It is not surprising that we may not refuse of raw mineral`s export at the very moment .
Some fundamental ideas aimed for the decision of corresponding emphasized problems.
The lag of formation in processing production, transport arteries (for example, gas – oil pipelines infrastructural objects, transmission facilities as well as construction industry enterprises) and social-domestic complex evidently point the raw materials` mastering by narrow departmental methods. That is why, construction and projection processes of oil and gas deposits determine all possible ways for the extraction of «more and more» in comparatively short periods of time, forgetting the question of quality, specific physicochemical parameters and potential ability for wide assortments of important production, e. g. above mentioned value added .
Considering the fact that subsidies of the region mostly directed for the investments to the fixed capital – the exact algorithm of actions is to be detected. Another important moment is the «staff preparation». Two possible ways are to be pointed out for the stabilization of the current situation and decision making:
1. The country buys ready effective technology and adapts it for the local market with the further use.
2. The country invests into production means and development of the proper scientific and technical potential, owing the right to sell or use the invented effective and profitable product.
Undoubtedly, the risk exists in both cases. But the state may not sleep as time flies, as the industrial branch will respond immediately – will stop to be relevant and competitive, will die and stop providing extra profits.
If to orientate the national and regional economies fir the export of high quality ready production we are to invest into construction and improvement of processing plants and factories, purchasing technologies and equipment.
At the very same time A. A. Adambekova points clearly main ideas for regional development and possible resolution towards the problem of underfunding – the correspondence of three complementary factors which supply the main ideas – rational usage of limited labor and financial resources.
“– the current effectiveness growth of economics (modernization and diversification) to rise the efficiency and value added degree, as well as surpluses’ release, the former mentioned corresponds to low-output traditional enterprises;
– creation of the basis for the economy of future to ensure sustainable development of economics for a long-term perspective and creation of conditions for effective talent`s employment (as well as for qualified specialists, scientists, effective managers and successful business owners);
– the protection of effective employment for the population with comparatively low education level (the small business programs for areas with rural population and the proper respect for migratory people because of inescapable urbanization).
The systematic analysis for income`s differentiation in regions-exporters of raw materials shows that the disparity includes not only issues, but the poverty ingenuously brings to the difficulties with intersectional integration processes, whose target is the complicated and full-fledged productive process. Such measure will reinforce the concentration of production and strengthen its effectiveness as well as will influence the monopolization of national economy, dependence from government and foreign capital participation”.
Post systematic data analysis shows that is important to put the production in such a way to motivate more potential productive regions for industrial boom and to turn them to a kind of «trucks» for less gifted neighboring areas.
The list of references:
1. Мухамедханова А. К. Некоторые проблемы развития инновационной деятельности в нефтегазовом секторе республики Казахстан / А. К. Мухамедханова // Стратегия перевода экономики на инновационно-технологическую платформу: материалы науч.-практ. конф. (25 февраля 2011г); п од общ. ред. д. э. н., проф. А. М. Сейтказиевой. – Алматы: Экономика, 2011. – Ч. II I.
2. Структура экспорта Республики Казахстан по основным товарным группам за январь–ноябрь 2011 г . // Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике.
3. Web resource. – Access mode: http://www.iteconomic.com/valovoj-regionalnyj-produkt.aspx
4. Web resource. – Access mode: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/vvp/met-r.htm
5. Адамбекова А. А. Субвенционность регионов Казахстана: инструменты и методы ранжирования / А. А. Адамбекова. – Алматы: Магистраль, 2010. – № 5. – С. 32–38.