«Альянс наук: ученый – ученому» (27-28 марта 2014 года)

PhD Nemtev A. D.*, PhD Shevlyakova E. M.**

* Volzhsky University named by V. N. Tatishchev , Russia ;

** Togliatti state University , Russia



Successful development of the enterprise, stable ensuring its competitiveness requires a systemic approach to mobilization of reserves due to the development of science and technology and production experience. The role of system approach increases in conditions where companies have to overcome and to grow in economic crisis situation. This is due, firstly, to the fact that in a crisis situation becomes much more complicated work on coordination of activity of the enterprise with all enterprises-subcontractors. Secondly, increasingly become a priority role of intensive factors of the competitive enterprise development. For complete as possible their use, it is important to ensure multivariate preparation and choice of optimal solutions, increasing the efficiency and their timely implementation. Third, it is necessary to choose such organizational – technical and economic solutions, which will allow at the same financial resources to achieve a more sustainable competitiveness. Fourth, the management reserves competitiveness is an important component of the innovation system of the enterprise, allowing to generate new knowledge and to project them into new kinds of production, new technologies, new methods of production organization and management.

The systematic implementation of the reserves requires careful preparation, study the market needs and tendencies of their development, economic and other possibilities of the enterprise, a comprehensive analysis of different variants of decisions and assessing their consequences.

The mechanism of systematic use of reserves production at the plant includes the constant study of the sources of origin of reserves, detection and analysis, the comparison of the achieved level of quality possible with the realization of reserves: a comparison of actual performance with the regulations, with indicators the best world and national samples, with projected indicators; economic assessment of reserves and determination of their value: the calculations of economic efficiency, analysis of alternatives and selection of the best of them, the assessment of risks, determination of the quantity of reserves; planning using reserves (definition of quality indicators in the business plans, the development of organizational and technical measures to achieve the planned level of quality, development of norms and standards, taking into account shifts in product quality with other sections of the business plan), the organization of security the planned level of quality (preparation for production of new and upgraded products, preparation and placement of personnel to ensure the planned level of quality, organization of material flows accordance with the requirements of improvement of quality of production, control over the implementation planned indicators); encouraging the reproduction of reserves and their effective use (use of appropriate systems for assessing the activities of internal and management, set reasonable prices for the products, development of the creative initiative of workers) [1].

The system of utilization of reserves of the competitiveness of enterprises requires the analysis of the totality of the factors defining the level. This should be analyzed all stages of the reproduction process [2]. Required for consumer quality of products is laid on pre-production stages. This process uses resources must meet a certain level of quality. Manifest same qualitative properties in the consumption (use) products. Therefore, to provide competitiveness of the enterprise, it is necessary not only high quality design and manufacture of products, but its consumption according to purpose.

The diversity of the provisions of the competitiveness of enterprises are classified according to sources of occurrence, i. e., objective and subjective reasons. Then the aggregate reserves of the competitiveness of enterprises can be divided into two groups.

The first group includes those that are caused by drawbacks in the work of the enterprise, management of its activities. The second type of reserves are reserves that appeared due to scientific-technical progress and advanced production experience. If the first type of reserves speaks about the shortcomings in the organization of production and management, the second shows the new features of development of production and increase its efficiency, driven by technological progress, continuous emergence of new knowledge about the technique, technology, organization of production and management.

The use of certain provisions has a different effect on the competitiveness of enterprises. For example, elimination or reduction of losses of working time enhances the competitiveness of enterprises through the growth of labour productivity; introduction of new process process not only improves productivity, reduces production costs and improves the quality of manufactured products. Therefore, depending on the impact on the competitiveness of the enterprise should distinguish reserves, allowing to improve one specific indicator competitive level of profitability, sales and other), and the reserves, the use of which has a complex effect on the competitiveness of enterprises.

The main strategic goal of functioning of any enterprise in market conditions is the full satisfaction of requirements of consumers in the internal and external markets by increasing the competitiveness of products and getting stable profit for the further development of production in the interests of consumers. Competitiveness depends primarily on the quality of manufactured products. Quality is a key issue for the market economy, as competition dictates the level and the dynamics of product quality and determines the competitiveness of its manufacturer, forcing them under threat of displacement from market continuously to address the quality and competitiveness of their products. Therefore the system of ensuring the competitiveness of the company it is essential. Based on this crucial for the competitiveness of enterprises are those reserves, which provide a competitive advantage in the system of «quality production costs – price». However, it cannot be considered an absolute statement that better corresponds to the higher socio-economic costs. This assertion is contrary to the objective laws and laws governing the development of the modern economy. It is legitimate only for those conditions, when the problem of product quality, improvement of all industrial-economic activities are trying to decide unilaterally on old material and technical basis, without qualitative improvement of all elements of production.

Modern scientific-technical progress, the use of its achievements will enable companies to simultaneously improve the quality of products and reduce (unit value) public – necessary costs of production. Stable and long-term competitiveness of companies on the basis of systematic use of available reserves requires the introduction and constant improvement of the General (total) quality management. Recently on the domestic industrial enterprises have become increasingly applied management system based on the universal quality management. However, analysis shows that used at the enterprises of system of quality management is not always provide high quality products with efficient use of production resources and thereby to ensure the company's competitiveness. This can be explained by the fact that, first, in control systems vaguely formed company policy in the field of quality and competitiveness of production, and not always applied consistently process-based approach in the system of quality management: not given due attention management as an organizational and management processes. Secondly, the quality management system does not always provide objective and accurate assessment of efficiency of activity of the services and departments. This is due to the fact that often are not well monitored quality implementation of all processes and activities. In addition, the organization of quality control cannot be considered effective on the totality of the production and management processes. Control, as a rule, is not preventive nature, insufficient prevention system defects in the work; not in full developed and applied by the enterprise standards and other standards and documents on quality control, especially organizational and managerial processes; has not received universal application at enterprises identification procedures product quality and quality processes. So often impossible to prove that in the process of production and realization of products made all the technological and control operations in accordance with the requirements of current technical documentation.

Needs improvement and providing information necessary for identifying reserves for product quality and competitiveness. This primarily relates to the composition and structure of information, a clear finding items recorded and analyzed information needs more careful processing of documentation used for accumulation and analysis of data on production factors.

In current market conditions, the competitiveness of an enterprise is achieved primarily by the high quality of its functioning and possible low production costs. So you need to choose from the possible options for the use of reserves in the most economical. This requires reasonably and reliably estimate the total costs associated with the implementation of the provisions and the obtained results.

The most important part of the mechanism of utilization of reserves of competitiveness of the enterprise is planning their use. This is done by incorporating into the current and prospective plans of the most effective technological and organizational innovations, as well as of measures on creation of required for implementation of socio-economic conditions. Measures to implement the provisions are an integral part of the plan of organizational and technical development and increasing efficiency of production, logistics, marketing, etc.

For a complete and comprehensive use of reserves competitiveness need the high susceptibility of the enterprises for innovations. Without this susceptibility can't develop successfully in the market conditions. In fact, innovative activity transform potential into real competitive power, and the quality of this transformation ultimate success depends.

To encourage the collectives of enterprises and individual workers to innovations can be applied to different incentives. It is very important to optimally combine the individual forms of stimulation to the collective. Motivational effect of the company directly zoom to individual workers and groups of workers.

Despite the importance of financial incentives motivate high quality labour is impossible to forget and various forms of moral encouragement.

Experience shows that for the maximum possible use of reserves competitiveness and production efficiency, the most important criteria to encourage staff are broad social motivation – focus on the public interest, the increasing importance of their work; motivation the group is striving to contribute to the achievement of the goals of the whole group; motivation of affiliation – the desire to belong to a particular group; financial motivation is the need to increase the level of their material welfare, the pursuit of higher earnings [2].

These motives have a direct impact on people's behavior in innovative activities related to the improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises.

Thus, it can be argued that systematic and efficient use of reserves in the practice of management will provide increase of competitiveness of production, improve its image and overall competitiveness.


The list of references:

1.              Lapina N. V. Basic directions of realization of provisions of the product quality / N. V. Lapina,V. M. Larin. – Saratov: Izd. the centre of Saratov state socioeconomic University, 2005. – S. 154.

2.              Larin V. M. The quality and competitiveness of products / V. M. Larin, A. D. Nemtev, N. V. Lapina, – Saratov: Izd. the centre of Saratov state socioeconomic University, 2004. – S. 240.