Pismennyy O. V., Rieznik M. A.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine



XXI century is the century of information and telecommunications. If you need to learn about something, you can do it at any time in any place, and advertisers make use of it to accomplish the tasks set by their customer. The main purpose of advertising is to encourage consumers to purchase goods or services of a particular company. Of all the ways to communicate information about any product, five basic ones can be distinguished. They are as follows: outdoor advertising, television, online advertising, SMS advertising, printed media.

Before the process of advertising some product or service begins, it is necessary to study the end market, i.e. who advertising will be aimed at. For segmentation, one of the four principles is used: geographic, demographic, psychographic or behavioral. These principles are used both separately and in any combination with others to determine as accurately as possible, what need is met by a particular product, and, respectively, what advertising and promotional means must be used to influence the consumer.

Advertisers and advertising agencies use a variety of different methods of advertising to attract the largest possible audience of consumers. Methods of advertising should be the messages meaningful to the consumer regardless of their form. Let us consider several methods of advertising.

The first is called the "problem solution" method. It is to show the consumer the ideal solution to a problem that they have. It can be used both on its own and in combination with other methods.

The second method is the use of positive words that relate to the subject of advertising. The most frequently observed example is emphasizing how the brand values correlate with the meaningful things in a person's life.

The third advertising method is binding a particular product to a specific consumer audience that shares some common interest. For example, women should not be viewed as a single target audience, because they can be divided into hundreds of subtypes like housewives, glamorous ladies, business women, etc. And each group has their needs and interests.

The fourth advertising method is the use of a well-know person. This is probably the most popular method. It's hard to think of a celebrity who does not take part in advertising campaigns. The popularity of such advertising acts is based on the famous people as carriers of useful information to the audience.

The fifth advertising method is when the lack of some qualities is pointed out to the subjects of advertising.

The sixth advertising method is to create massive pressure on the consumer and/or use a strong appeal.

The seventh advertising method is psychological manipulation. Its aim is to create illusions with the use of the advertised object. Few people are aware of it.

Depending on the advertisement, lifecycles of products (services) can be distinguished. All in all, there are five stages of the product lifecycle: market launch, sales growth, maturity, saturation, decline. Introduction of goods on the market (the first phase of the product lifecycle) requires the use of sometimes deceptive advertising information, because at this stage of the future of the goods on the market is predetermined. This phase of the product lifecycle is usually backed up by very strong advertising pressure to ensure brand awareness in the market.

During the stage of growth and development, promotional pressure is decreasing, though insignificantly. During this period, comparative and persuasive advertising is used. Its mission is to reinforce the main advantages of the product in the minds of consumers.

When the product is established in the market, there comes the third stage the stage of maturity. During this period, as well as in the next one, so-called stage of saturation, it is necessary to maintain the position of the goods and to try to expand it by attracting new customers. Depending on the nature of competition and the advertisers position on the market, to preserve the prestige of the brand, reminding and supporting advertising is used.

With the threat of the decrease in demand for goods, advertising usually isnt used any more (but in some cases with the help of advertising campaigns businesses are trying to keep a product on the market, to prolong its life). Fig. 1.1 shows the relationship between a product life cycle and various types of advertising.



Fig. 1. Advertising and product life cycle


To sum up, we can say that advertising plays an important role in the life of any enterprise, as the future of all activities at all stages of a lifecycle depends on the right strategy of advertising the goods, the correctness and accuracy of the selected segment of the market that production is targeted at. Due to the badly chosen and inappropriate strategy of advertising the company may suffer huge losses, which will lead to a need to modify the product and launch a new marketing program that subsequently will affect the price of a new product or even will result in discontinuing the line.


List of references:

1. Ukraine. Laws. On advertising : Reigning. Law: [introduced by a Resolution of VR N 271/96-BP of 03.07.96, VVR, 1996, N 39, Art. 182].

2. Pankratov FG., Bazhenov JK., Seregina TK., Shakhurin VG. Promotional activities: the textbook for students of higher educational institutions. 3rd ed., rev. and add. M. : Information-innovation center Marketing, 2001. 364 p.