PhD in EconomicsVlasenko Maryna

OlesHoncharDnipropetrovskNationalUniversity(Ukraine)

INTELLECTUAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY

 

Knowledge-based economy has emerged in the era of the fifth technological order, and its further development is associated with new technology achievements. Within the knowledge-based economy the production ofknowledge is added to the traditional production. It is represented by a huge complex,which includes universities, the patent system, fundamental and applied science, and also research and development. The activities that are closely linked with science and high technology occupy a sufficient share in the sectoral structure of a countrys economy.

Large-scale application of new technologies has led to the emergence and spread of new organizational forms of entrepreneurship and business (which are based on knowledge), new organizational forms of interaction among government, business and the community [1]. But it is necessary tomake a distinctionamong such concepts asknowledge entrepreneurship, academic entrepreneurship and intellectual entrepreneurship.

Knowledge entrepreneurship [2] is focused on the improvement of scientific research, production and use of knowledge. It is considered as the most appropriate form of business for non-profit organizations in the field of education and it is embodied in the model of ResearchUniversity. The essence of the latter is the integration of the educational process and fundamental research.

Academic entrepreneurship was developed at the end of the industrial era (in the 1980s.) as a strategy for commercialization of scientific knowledge. The main entityof the academic entrepreneurship is an EntrepreneurialUniversity a university that not only interacts with industry, but also is able to commercialize the results of its research activities, that is, to make profits and to attract additional financial resources [3]. The USexperience indicates twomodels of EntrepreneurialUniversity. The first model is the University-Entrepreneur, whose departments and faculties offer new scientific and educational products tothe market. The second model the University-Entrepreneur, which gives teachers, students and graduates the opportunity to enter the global markets with innovative companies they founded. Stanford and BerkeleyUniversities(California, USA) represent the second model: carrying out the orders of large corporations and the Pentagon they, in fact, created a world center of high technology, known as the Silicon Valley.

In the context of the intellectual entrepreneurship universities, together with teaching and research activities, participate in social and economic development of the region and the country, and also in the creation of knowledge-based economy. The concept of intellectual entrepreneurship consists of three components: intellectualism, entrepreneurship and academia[4] This approach reflects a narrow view on the interpretation of intellectual entrepreneurship concept according to which it means a special kind of intellectuals entrepreneurial activity who provide socially oriented sophisticated knowledge-based and high-tech products, while are guided not only by economic gains (profit), but also the goals of self-realization and spiritual and moral reference points. Richard Cherwitz, the author of the intellectual entrepreneurship concept, considers it as the development, integration and efficient use of intellect and talents where they are concentrated to promote the scientific, cultural, political, social and economic changes [5]. It allows implementing of such concepts asCultural Entrepreneur, Social Entrepreneur, and Political entrepreneur into the academic circulation.

Intellectual entrepreneurs discover the need for new ideas, political decisions or educational programs, and have the talent and desire to attract and allocate resources to meet these needs. They create Think Tanks, which produce such specific goods and services as scientific research, education, advocacy and networking (here networking means social and professional activities aimed at quick and efficientsolving of complex life problems with the help of a circle of friends and acquaintances, in other words building business relationships in order to obtain certain benefits in the future). Do Tanksare focused on the creation of specific products or the achievement of concrete results [6]. Intellectual entre preneur shipis the most common spread in a sphere of research and development, creative industries, management and consulting, education, stuff training, information services [7].

Intellectual entrepreneurship should have the same specific talents as businessmen. However, intellectual entre preneur ship is not just a set of specific talents and abilities of an entrepreneur, which are necessary for conducting business in an economy based on knowledge. This is the ability to organize a joint work of knowledge workers, to provide them with the access to the expertise, knowledge and information. As the result, it creates conditions for new opportunities and fosters innovation.

 

List of references:

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2. Harvey L. Transforming higher education / L. Harvey, P. Knight. Buckingham [England]; Bristol, Pa. : Society for Research into Higher Education: Open University Press, 1996 223 p.

3. Etzkowitz H. Entrepreneurial science in the academy a case of the transformation of norms / H. Etzkowitz // Social Problems. 1989. 36 (1). P. 1429.

4. Johannisson B. Intellectual entrepreneurship: Emerging identity in a learning perspective / B. Johannisson, S. Kwiatkowski, T. Dandridge // Knowledge café for intellectual entrepreneurship / S. Kwiatkowski, L. Edvinsson (Eds.). Warsaw : LeonKozminskiAcademy of Entrepreneurship and Management, 1999. 204 p. pp. 2946.

5. Cherwitz R. A. Intellectual entrepreneurship as a platform for transforming higher education / R. A. Cherwitz, G. D. Beckman // Metropolitan Universities. 2008. 19 (3). P. 88101.

6. Chafuen A. The talents of intellectual entrepreneurs [Electronic resource] / A. Chafuen // Forbes. 07.01.2015. Available online at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/alejandrochafuen/ 2015/01/07/the-talents-of-intellectual-entrepreneurs

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